双色球今天开奖直播现场:英語散文:論習慣與教育

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049期双色球开奖直播 www.lvelns.com.cn

  摘要:人們底思想多是依從著他們底愿望的,他們底談論和言語多是依從著他們底學問和從外面得來的見解的;但是他們底行為卻是隨著他們平日的習慣的。所以馬基亞委利說得很好(雖然他所論的事是很丑的),天性底力量和言語底動人,若無習慣底增援,都是不可靠的。

  Men's thoughts are much according to their inclination: their discourse and speechesaccording to their learning, and infused opinions; but their deeds are after as they have beenaccustomed. And therefore, as Machiavelli well noteth (though in an evil favoured instance)there is no trusting to the force of nature, nor to the bravery of words; except it becorroborate by custom. His instance is, that for the achieving of a desperate conspiracy, aman should not rest upon the fierceness of any man's nature, or his resolute undertakings;but take Such an one, as hath had his hands formerly in blood. But Machiavelli knew not of aFriar Clement, nor a Ravillac, nor a Jaureguy, nor a Baltazar Gerard: yet his rule holdeth still,that nature, nor the engagement of words, are not so forcible as custom. Only superstition isnow so well advanced, that men of the first blood are as firm as butchers by occupation: andvotary resolution is made equipollent to custom, even in matter of blood. In other things, thepredominancy of custom is everywhere visible; in so much, as a man would wonder, to hearmen profess, protest, engage, give great words, and then do just as they have done before:as if they were dead images, and engines moved only by the wheels of custom.

  人們底思想多是依從著他們底愿望的,他們底談論和言語多是依從著他們底學問和從外面得來的見解的;但是他們底行為卻是隨著他們平日的習慣的。所以馬基亞委利說得很好(雖然他所論的事是很丑的),天性底力量和言語底動人,若無習慣底增援,都是不可靠的。他所論的事情是,為了完成一件極險惡的陰謀,一個人不可信任所用的某人之天性底兇猛或約言底堅決,而應當任用以前曾經親自下過手,手上染過他人底血的人。但是馬基亞委利不知道有一個乞僧克萊門,也不知道有一個哈委亞克,也不知道有一個約爾基,也不知道有一個巴爾塔薩爾·杰拉爾;然而他底定律依然是不移的,就是,天性與言語上的允諾要約都不如習慣有力。只有一件,就是現在迷信很盛,以致初次為迷信殺人的人簡直是和業屠的人一樣地不動心;盟誓底決意也被作成與習慣一樣地強,甚至在流血的事件中亦是如此。在迷信以外的事情中習慣之凌駕一切是處處可見的;其勢力之強,使得人們于自白、抗辯、允諾、夸張之后,依然一仍舊貫地作下去,好象他們是無生命的偶像,和由習慣底輪子來轉動著的機械似的,這種情形真使人驚訝。

  We see also the reign or tyranny of custom, what it is. The Indians (I mean the sect of theirwise men) lay themselves quietly upon a stack of wood, and so sacrifice themselves by fire.Nay, the wives strive to be burned with the corpses of their husbands. The lads of Sparta, ofancient time, were wont to be scourged upon the altar of Diana, without so much as queening. Iremember in the beginning of Queen Elizabeth's time of England, an Irish rebel condemned,put up a petition to the deputy, that he might be hanged in a with, and not in an halter,because it had been so used, with former rebels.

  我們也可以見到習慣底統治或專制,可以看出它是怎么回事。印度人(我說的是他們底哲人中的一派)會自己靜靜地躺在一堆柴上,然后用火自焚以為犧牲。不但如此,那些做妻子的還要爭著與丈夫底尸身一同燒死呢。在古時,斯巴達底青年們常樂于在狄亞那底祭壇上受笞刑,連一動也不動。我還記得在女王伊利薩白初年的英國,有一個被判死刑的愛爾蘭叛黨曾上呈總督,請求縊死他的時候用薪條而不用絞索,因為以前的叛黨都是照例用薪條的。

  There ON be monks in Russia, for penance, that will sit a whole night in a vessel of water, tillthey be engaged with hard ice. Many examples may be put of the force of custom, both uponmind, and body. Therefore, since custom is the principal magistrate of man's life, let men by allmeans endeavour to obtain good customs.

  在俄羅斯有些僧人為贖罪起見,會在水盆里坐上一夜,直到他們被堅冰凍住了才算。習慣在人底精神和肉體兩方面的力量,例子可以舉出很多來。所以,既然習慣是人生底主宰,人們就應當努力求得好的習慣。

  Certainly, custom is most perfect, when it beginneth in young years: this we call education;which is, in effect, but an early custom. So we see, in languages the tongue is more pliant to allexpressions and sounds, the joints are more supple to all fears of activity and motions, inyouth than afterwards. For it is true, that late learners cannot so well take the ply; except it bein some minds, that have not suffered themselves to fix, but have kept themselves open andprepared to receive continual amendment, which is exceeding rare.

  習慣如果是在幼年就起始的,那就是最完美的習慣,這是一定的,這個我們叫做教育。教育其實是一種從早年就起始的習慣。所以我們常見,在言語上,幼年時代比幼年以后舌頭較為柔活,能學一切的語法及聲音,并且四肢關節也比較柔活,適于各種的競技和運動。因為年長方學的人不能象從小就學起的人能屈伸如意,這是真的;除非在有些從未固定自己底心志,反而把心志開放著,并準備好了接受不斷的改良的人們,那算是例外,但這種情形是非常之少的。

  But if the force of custom simple and separate, be great: the force of custom copulate, andconjoined and collegiate, is far greater. For there example teacheth; company comforteth;emulation quickeneth; glory raiseth: so as in such places the force of custom is in hisexaltation. Certainly, the great multiplication of virtues upon human nature resteth uponsocieties well ordained, and disciplined. For commonwealths, and good governments, donourish virtue grown, but do not much mend the seeds. But the misery is, that the mosteffectual means are now applied to the ends least to be desired.

  但是假如個人底單獨的習慣其力量是很大的,那么共有的聯合的習慣,其力量就更大得多了。因為在這種地方他人底例子可為我之教訓,他人底陪伴可為我之援助,爭勝之心使我受刺激,光榮使我得意,所以在這種地方習慣底力量可說是到了最高峰。天性中美德底繁殖是要仗著秩序井然,紀律良好的社會的;這是無疑的。因為國家與好政府只是滋養已長成的美德,而不甚幫助美德的種子的??殺?,最有效的工具,目前是正用以求達到最要不得的目的呢。

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049期双色球开奖直播 www.lvelns.com.cn true //www.lvelns.com.cn/jiaoyuxuexiba/yingyu/xiezuo/meiwen/287439.html report 4832 為您提供全方面的英語散文:論習慣與教育相關信息,根據用戶需求提供英語散文:論習慣與教育最新最全信息,解決用戶的英語散文:論習慣與教育需求,  摘要:人們底思想多是依從著他們底愿望的,他們底談論和言語多是依從著他們底學問和從外面得來的見解的;但是他們底行為卻是隨著他們平日的習慣的。所以馬基亞委利說得很好(雖然他所論的事是很丑的),天性底力量和言語底動人,若無習慣底增援,都是不可靠的?! en'sthoughtsaremu...
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